Special Topics & Resources

Resources, Research, and Information on Women In Recovery from Addiction

Women In Recovery

5.7% of women have a substance use disorder in the United States, according to 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data.    

According to NESARC data from that same year, 3% of American women suffer from a drug use disorder, while 10.4% suffer from an alcohol use disorder.

how is female addiction treatment different from addiction treatment for men?

While men historically have been more likely to develop a substance use disorder, women also suffer in great numbers.

In recent years, the once large gap between the rates of overdose deaths for men, as compared to women, has been steadily closing.  It is expected that the rates of overdose among women will continue to increase in the next couple of years.

48,000 women died from prescription pain reliever overdose from 1999 to 2010. However, in just a 5-year span from 2010 to 2015, over 50,000 women died from a drug overdose (excluding alcohol related deaths and causes).

Research has shown that women are more likely to have chronic pain, be prescribed prescription pain relievers by their doctors, be prescribed higher doses of pain relievers by their doctors, and use them for longer periods of time than men.

 

SOURCE: NIDA https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates


Like other demographic population subgroups, women in recovery may face unique barriers and distinctive issues from their male counterparts.

 

how does a woman's recovery differ from recovery for men?

This is a result of both sex differences (e.g. biological differences between male and female bodies) and gender differences (e.g. societal or culturally constructed roles of masculinity and femininity).

BIOLOGICALLY,

substance use disorder in women progresses at a faster rate than men, and are more susceptible to craving and relapse. Physiological differences accelerate the progression of addiction, as women metabolize alcohol and drugs differently. Fewer stomach enzymes and more fatty tissue slow down the processing of alcohol and other drugs, causing the body to be exposed to higher concentrations of the substance longer.

CULTURALLY,

women have often experienced greater levels of stigmatization around substance use as a result of their traditional societal roles as gatekeepers, mothers, caregivers, and often the central organizing factor in their family units. With the integration of women into the mainstream workforce in most middle and high-income countries like the U.S.,  women have also begun consuming alcohol at intensities and frequencies that are quickly catching up to that of their male counterparts.

Women suffering from substance use disorder will have unique experiences and challenges, displaying different issues and needs that may be essential to address in order for them to achieve and maintain long-term recovery.

GENDER-SPECIFIC SENSITIVITIES:

STIGMA

The shame, blame, and guilt attached to addiction can be stronger for women, especially mothers. Women report higher levels of stigma than men, and stigma is a known barrier to treatment seeking.

Historically, substance use disorder in women was considered a selfish, moral failure, that resulted in intentional harm to the family, child, and in terms of placing a burden on society. More current categorizations of substance use disorder however, acknowledge addiction in women as a treatable medical condition that impairs decision-making and overall cognitive function.

TRAUMA

Compared to men, a higher percentage of women with substance use disorder have been the victims of physical, sexual, or verbal abuse. It is estimated that between 55% and 99% of women in addiction treatment have had traumatic experiences.

Learn more about: Trauma & Addiction

CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS

Women are more prone to depression, anxiety, and eating disorders than men. Almost 2x as many women experience depression as men. Postpartum depression in women who have recently given birth, is another co-occurring disorder worth noting.

Eating disorders are also common among women with substance use disorder.

Learn more about: Co-Occurring Disorders

GENDER INEQUALITIES

Women are more likely to experience economic barriers to treatment. Pay gaps, lower wages, less income, or the higher likelihood of women living in poverty prior to substance use disorder onset, can limit the financial resources available to seek services and treatment.

Providing comprehensive services and continuing care post-treatment (e.g. housing, transportation, education, and income support), is known to reduce substance use in both genders, but a higher number of women are in need of those services.

MOTHERHOOD

70% of women entering addiction treatment have children. Women entering treatment are more likely to have primary responsibility for their children, where as the majority of fathers entering addiction treatment have another primary caretaker (e.g. mother) available.

More generally, women are more likely than men to experience difficulties in attending regular treatment sessions because of family responsibilities, and cite being responsible for the child care as one of the biggest barriers to entering treatment.

Women with children may also be hesitant to seek treatment for fear of legal action and social service involvement.

Women with substance use disorder are more likely than men to face multiple barriers in accessing treatment, and are less likely than men to seek treatment. Women also are more likely to seek treatment in mental health or primary care settings rather than in specialized addiction treatment programs.

SUPPORTIVE MEASURES FOR WOMEN IN TREATMENT

SEXUAL HEALTHCARE

Sexual health services should be offered to women to address unique health risks, as part of normal comprehensive physical exams provided to patients. These services may include attention towards family planning, protection and sexually transmitted diseases, and fluctuating hormonal levels.

GENDER SPECIFIC

Due to the high number of women with a history of sexual abuse or body image issues, gender specific options such as housing, peer support groups, or same-sex provider and care teams may help facilitate a safe environment for the patient to focus on treatment and recovery.

Data from the 2005 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services revealed that 87% of sampled programs accepted women, but only 41% of these programs provided  gender-specific programming or women-only groups.

SUPPORTIVE THERAPIES

Research has found that women enter addiction treatment with lower self-esteem than their male counterparts (Beckman 1994). As a result, use of supportive therapies (e.g. empathy, connection, warmth) has been found to be more effective (SAMHSA, 2009).

CHILDCARE

Women often have lack of access to child care services, discouraging attendance or even preventing treatment entry. By providing childcare supports, programs can help women enter and stay in treatment, allowing women to help themselves, and therefore help their children.

In 2003, only 8% of addiction treatment facilities provided child care.

LEGAL SUPPORT

Some programs may seek to offer legal support to assist mothers who have had their children removed by social services.

TRAININGS & WORKSHOPS

To address women-focused topics such as classes on parenting, job training, body image, housing, and financial independence.

CONTINUUM OF INTEGRATIVE FAMILY-BASED SERVICES
Werner, D., Young, N.K., Dennis, K, & Amatetti, S.. Family-Centered Treatment for Women with
Substance Use Disorders – History, Key Elements and Challenges. Department of Health and Human
Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007.

RESOURCES FOR WOMEN

 

CITATIONS

Research Summaries
Additional Citations

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION AND RESEARCH ON ADDICTION TREATMENT AND RECOVERY

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